If I ask you what is the similarity amongst these three beautiful songs, viz, “Phoolon ke rang se dil ki kalam se”, “Dil aaj shayar hai gham aaj naghma hai” and “Ek ladki ko dekha to” apart from being Dev Burman Family Productions, what would be your answer? I know, many of you know- in each of these three songs , mukhda lines are never repeated throughout the song, or, rather there is no bifurcation between mukhda and antara. All the verses are independent . While “Phoolon ke rang se “ does reciprocate around the lines “badal bijli chandan pani…”, so does “Ek ladki ko dekha to”, reciprocating around these initial few words only(although none of them ever repeating the complete mukhda anywhere in the songs), “Dil aaj shayar hai” is absolutely unique and consists of verses absolutely independent of one another.
There have been quite such interesting songs in the old Hindi Film Music with quite unique formats- especially with the traditional mukhda-antara format- which we can discuss here. The above example discussed here is one such instance of “No repetition of Mukhda”.
Antara Tune to start with and then Mukhda:
One such example is “Khwab ho tum ya koi haqeeqat”, where the song starts with bare vocal Kishore Kumar rendering the antara tune first- “subah pe jis tarah sham ka..” and then picking up the mukhda tune “Khwab ho tum ya koi haqeeqat”.
Another such example is “Dekho yeh mere bandhe haath” from the movie “Bandhe Haath”, where the song starts with “Kya janoo main hoon kaun…” which is again the antara tune and then comes the mukhda tune which is “Kaise miloon tumse chahonn to mil na sakoo main” .
Sanchari Format in Hindi Songs:
Sanchari format is quite common in Bengali traditional songs, in fact in many Tagore songs. Sanchari is mainly used in the second antara, where before repeating the tune of first antara, a separate tune is created for an extra couplet before. Very few music directors tried to replicate this in Hindi songs, with the exception of Salil Chowdhury, who composed some very beautiful “Sancharis” (her daughters were also named Antara and Sanchari by the way). One example is “O sajna barkha bahar aayi” from Parakh(1960), where the Sanchari part is “Aese rimjhim mein O sajan, pyase pyase mere nayan tere hi khwab mein kho gaye”, which is used before the common antara tune of the song is used in the second stanza. Also, there was “Na jiya lage na” from Anand(1970), where sanchari part comes again before the start of second stanza as “ Na jiya lage na, piya teri bawri se raha jaye na”. So strong was Salil’s hold on Sanchari making that very few other Bengali MDs dared to implement this format lest they got compared with him. Bhanu Gupta- a long time associate with R D Burman, once told me that he had asked RD as to why the latter did not compose Sancharis in his songs(he did once though, in a Bengali song “Jete daao amaye deko na”), to which RD replied that the day he would feel confident that he could make a Sanchari as good as that of “O sajna”, he definitely would.
Varied Paces of Mukhda Antara with Varied Moods:
Burmans again! J One of the classic examples is S D Burman’s “Kaisa hai mera dil tu khiladi” from Gambler, where Papa Burman makes the mukhda tune sad and slow and then suddenly picks up the tempo and the mood in the antaras , only to come down again while repeating the mukhda tune. Amazingly done by Kishore Kumar in terms of switching frequent moods.
Not so much from the elite groups, Bappi Lahiri did try out this format a decade later with Kishore and Asha in “Imtihan ho gayi intezaar ki”, which starts with slow and sad pace, continues one full antara in the same mood, after which the heroine appears and the whole mood and pace of the song go jazzy! Not a bad job from the Disco Deewana by the way.
R D did this trick in “Sapna mera toot gaya”, where the overall mood of the song being sad is reflected in the mukhda, and in the antaras, when the girl starts recollecting her romantic past, the antara tunes and moods take a romantic twist, only to bring her back to the sad present while converging again into mukhda.
Three antaras with Individually different tunes
“Jab dard nahi tha seene mein” from Anurodh(1977) composed by Laxmikant Pyarelal had an innovative concept where there were three antaras in the song, each being distinctly differently composed in tune. The first “ Yaaron ka gham”, the second “Aese to thes na lagti thi” and the third “ Is qadar pyar to”- all are entirely differently composed and written in structure with no similarities. While I recall many instances where in a three antara song, there have been two antaras with one tune and third one with a different tune, all three antaras being distinctly composed is quite unique. Full marks to Laxmikant Pyarelal for pulling this off brilliantly.
Songs with no antara
No couplets to start with, no verses in the middle to be independent or converging whatever, there is only one verse with multiple lines- more like a descriptive poetry, a long continual verse- very challenging to give tunes to them. Kishore Kumar composed and sang “ Mujhe kho jaane do” from Door Ka Rahi(1971); those who have not heard this, please listen. It would give you goosebumps for sure, a great creation from a true genius.